Pakistan Biological

Pakistan is not thought to have Biological Weapons programme and no licences for biological-related technology have been refused from either the UK or the US.


Open-source information contains no reliable indication that Pakistan has ever had an active offensive biological weapons programme.

However, there have been some indications that Pakistan has shown an interest in biotechnology and its possible military applications. US allegations made by the Department of Defense in the late 1990s indicated that Pakistan had ‘the resources and capabilities appropriate to conducting research and development relating to biological warfare’, and was actually ‘conducting research and development with potential biological warfare applications’. [i] Recent assessments have been less certain.

Legal Obligations; Nonproliferation Credentials

Pakistan has signed and ratified the Biological Weapons Convention. [ii]

Pakistan has signed the Geneva Protocol – effectively a pledge against using chemical and biological agents on the battlefield. [iii]

Pakistan is not a member of the Australia Group.

Recent Allegations by Other States

The 2011 US State Department Compliance Report noted that ‘Information available through the end of 2010 did not indicate Pakistan is engaged in activities prohibited by the BWC’. [iv]

[i] Quoted from an unspecified 1996 US Department of Defense Report, quote can be found at

[ii] See the list at

[iii] See the list at

[iv] ‘Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments’, US Department of State, 2011, available from

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